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Abbeville
Alexandria
Baker
Bastrop
Baton Rouge
Bogalusa
Bossier City
Breaux Bridge
Bunkie
Carencro
Covington
Crowley
Denham Springs
DeQuincy
De Ridder
Donaldsonville
Eunice
Franklin
Gonzales
Grambling
Gretna
Hammond
Harahan
Houma
Jeanerette
Jennings
Kaplan
Kenner
Lacombe
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Leesville
Mandeville
Mansfield
Marksville
Minden
Monroe
Morgan City
Natchitoches
New Iberia
New Orleans
New Roads
Oakdale
Opelousas
Patterson
Pineville
Plaquemine
Ponchatoula
Port Allen
Rayne
Ruston
St. Gabriel
St. Martinville
Scott
Shreveport
Slidell
Springhill
Sulphur
Tallulah
Thibodaux
Ville Platte
Westlake
West Monroe
Westwego
Winnfield
Winnsboro
Zachary

Towns
Abita Springs
Addis
Amite City
Arcadia
Arnaudville
Baldwin
Ball
Basile
Benton
Bernice
Berwick
Blanchard
Boyce
Broussard
Brusly
Campti
Chatham
Cheneyville
Church Point
Clayton
Clinton
Colfax
Columbia
Cottonport
Cotton Valley
Coushatta
Cullen
Delcambre
Delhi
Dubach
Duson
Elizabeth
Elton
Erath
Eros
Evergreen
Farmerville
Ferriday
Fordoche
Franklinton
Gibsland
Glenmora
Golden Meadow
Gramercy
Grand Coteau
Grand Isle
Greensburg
Greenwood
Gueydan
Haughton
Haynesville
Henderson
Homer
Hornbeck
Independence
Iota
Iowa
Jackson
Jean Lafitte
Jena
Jonesboro
Jonesville
Keachi
Kentwood
Kinder
Krotz Springs
Lake Arthur
Lake Providence
Lecompte
Leonville
Livingston
Livonia
Lockport
Logansport
Lutcher
Madisonville
Mamou
Mangham
Mansura
Many
Maringouin
Marion
Melville
Montgomery
Mooringsport
Mount Lebanon
Newellton
New Llano
Oak Grove
Oberlin
Oil City
Olla
Pearl River
Plain Dealing
Pollock
Port Barre
Rayville
Richwood
Ridgecrest
Ringgold
Roseland
Rosepine
St. Francisville
St. Joseph
Sarepta
Sibley
Simmesport
Slaughter
Sorrento
Springfield
Sterlington
Stonewall
Sunset
Tullos
Urania
Vidalia
Vienna
Vinton
Vivian
Walker
Washington
Waterproof
Welsh
White Castle
Wisner
Woodworth
Youngsville
Zwolle

Villages
Albany
Anacoco
Angie
Ashland
Athens
Atlanta
Baskin
Belcher
Bienville
Bonita
Bryceland
Calvin
Cankton
Castor
Chataignier
Choudrant
Clarence
Clarks
Collinston
Converse
Delta
Dixie Inn
Dodson
Downsville
Doyline
Dry Prong
Dubberly
East Hodge
Edgefield
Epps
Estherwood
Fenton
Fisher
Florien
Folsom
Forest
Forest Hill
French Settlement
Georgetown
Gilbert
Gilliam
Goldonna
Grand Cane
Grayson
Grosse Tete
Hall Summit
Harrisonburg
Heflin
Hessmer
Hodge
Hosston
Ida
Jamestown
Johnson's Bayou
Junction City
Kilbourne
Killian
Lillie
Lisbon
Longstreet
Loreauville
Lucky
McNary
Martin
Maurice
Mermentau
Mer Rouge
Montpelier
Moreauville
Morganza
Morse
Mound
Napoleonville
Natchez
Noble
North Hodge
Norwood
Oak Ridge
Palmetto
Parks
Pilot Town
Pine Prairie
Pioneer
Plaucheville
Pleasant Hill
Port Fourchon
Port Vincent
Powhatan
Provencal
Quitman
Reeves
Richmond
Robeline
Rodessa
Rosedale
Saline
Shongaloo
Sicily Island
Sikes
Simpson
Simsboro
South Mansfield
Spearsville
Stanley
Sun
Tangipahoa
Tickfaw
Turkey Creek
Varnado
Wilson

Louisiana (pronounced /lu??i?zi'æn?/ or /?lu?zi'æn?/ ) ( French : Louisiane , pronounced /lwizjan/ ) is a Southern state of the United States of America .

Contents

[ hide ] 1 Geography 1.1 Topography

1.2 Geology

1.3 Protected areas 1.3.1 National Park Service

1.3.2 National Forest

1.3.3 State parks and recreational areas

1.3.4 Louisiana natural and scenic rivers

 

 

 

 

2 History 2.1 Exploration and settlement

2.2 Hurricane Katrina

 

 

3 Demographics 3.1 Languages

3.2 Religion

 

 

4 Economy

5 Transportation

6 Law and government

7 Largest cities and towns

8 Education

9 Sports teams

10 Culture

11 References

12 See also

13

 

 

// if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } // Geography

Map of Louisiana Topography

The state is bordered to the west by the state of Texas ; to the north by Arkansas ; to the east by the state of Mississippi ; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico .

The surface of the state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands, and the alluvial and coast and swamp regions. The alluvial regions, including the low swamps and coast lands, cover an area of about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km²); they lie principally along the Mississippi River , which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles (1,000 km) and ultimately emptying into the Gulf of Mexico , the Red River , the Ouachita River and its branches, and other minor streams. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles (15 to 100 km), and along the other streams it averages about 10 miles (15 km). The Mississippi flows upon a ridge formed by its own deposits, from which the lands incline toward the low swamps beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile (3 m/km). The lands along other streams present very similar features. These alluvial lands are never inundated save when breaks occur in the levees by which they are protected against the floods of the Mississippi and its tributaries. These floods, however, do not occur annually, and they may be said to be exceptional. With the maintenance of strong levees these alluvial lands would enjoy perpetual immunity from inundation.

The uplands and contiguous hill lands have an area of more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 km²), and they consist of prairie and woodlands. The elevations above sea-level range from 10 feet (3 m) at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet (15-18 m) at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills the elevations rise to Driskill Mountain the highest point in the state at only 535 feet (163 m) above sea level. Only two other states in the union, Florida and Delaware, are geographically lower than Louisiana. However, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Michigan, though higher in elevation, have less topography.

Besides the navigable rivers already named (some of which are called bayous), there are the Sabine , forming the western boundary, and the Pearl , the eastern boundary, the Calcasieu , the Mermentau , the Vermilion , the Teche , the Atchafalaya , the Boeuf , the Lafourche , the Courtableau , the D'Arbonne , the Macon , the Tensas , the Amite , the Tchefuncte , the Tickfaw , the Natalbany , and a number of other streams of lesser note, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles in length, which is unequalled in the United States. The state also has 1,060 square miles (2,745 km²) of land-locked bays, 1,700 square miles (4,400 km²) of inland lakes, and a river surface of over 500 square miles (1,300 km²).

Geology

The underlying strata of the state are of Cretaceous age and are covered by alluvial deposits of Tertiary and post-Tertiary origin. A large part of Louisiana is the creation and product of the Mississippi River . It was originally covered by an arm of the sea, and has been built up by the silt carried down the valley by the great river.

Near the coast, there are many salt domes , where salt is mined and oil is often found.

Owing to the extensive flood control measures along the Mississippi river and to natural subsidence, Louisiana is now suffering the loss of coastal land area. State and federal government efforts to halt or reverse this phenomenon are under way; others are being sought.

Protected areas

Louisiana contains a number of areas which are, in varying degrees, protected from human intervention. In addition to several stations of the National Park Service , and a federally recognized National Forest , Louisiana itself operates, among other programs, a system of state parks and recreation areas throughout the state.

National Park Service

Areas under the management and protection of the National Park Service include:

Cane River National Heritage Area near Natchitoches

Cane River Creole National Historical Park in Natchez

Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve , headquartered in New Orleans, with units in St. Bernard Parish, Baritaria (Crown Point), and Acadiana (Lafayette)

New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park

Poverty Point National Monument at Epps

Saline Bayou , a National Wild and Scenic River in northern Louisiana.

 

National Forest

Kisatchie National Forest is Louisiana's only National Forest. Headquartered in Pineville , Kisatchie National Forest operates six separate districts in the north-central area of the state, for the most part between Shreveport, Monroe, and Alexandria.

State parks and recreational areas

Louisiana operates a system of nineteen state parks, sixteen state historic sites, and one state preservation area.

see List of Louisiana state parks

 

Louisiana natural and scenic rivers

Administered by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, the Louisiana Natural and Scenic Rivers System provides a degree of protection for 48 rivers, streams, and bayous in the state. One of these, Saline Bayou, is also a National Wild and Scenic River.

History

Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans when European explorers arrived in the 17th century. Settlement and colonization began in the 18th century. Some current place names, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (Avoyelles), are from Native American dialects.

Several native tribes inhabited the region (using current parish boundaries to describe approximate locations): [1]

The Atakapa in southwestern Louisiana in Vermilion, Cameron, Lafayette, Acadia, Jefferson Davis, and Calcasieu parishes.

The Chitimacha in the southeastern parishes of Iberia, Assumption, St Mary, lower St. Martin, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Bo St. Charles, Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard, and Plaquemines.

The Bayougoula , part of the Choctaw nation, in areas directly north of the Chitimachas in the parishes of St. Helena, Tangipahoa, Washington, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Livingston, and St. Tammany.

The Houma in East and West Feliciana, and Pointe Coupee parishes (about 100 miles (160 km) north of the town named for them).

The Avoyel , part of the Natchez nation, in parts of Avoyelles and Concordia parishes along the Mississippi River.

The Tunica in northeastern parishes of Tensas, Madison, East Carroll and West Carroll.

The remainder of central and north Louisiana was home to a substantial portion of the Caddo nation.

 

Exploration and settlement

Louisiana regions The first European explorers to visit Louisiana came in 1528 . The Spanish expedition (led by Panfilo de Narváez ) located the mouth of the Mississippi River . In 1541 , Hernando de Soto 's expedition crossed the region. Then Spanish interest in Louisiana lay dormant. In the late 17th century, French expeditions, which included sovereign, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France lay claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.

The French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region Louisiana to honor France's King Louis XIV in 1682. The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi , near Biloxi ), was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville , a French military officer from Canada, in 1699.

The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to French territory in Canada . The following States were part of Louisiana: Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota.

The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent settlement in the Louisiana Purchase territory. The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas , and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. Also, the northern terminus of the Old San Antonio Road (sometimes called El Camino Real, or Kings Highway) was at Natchitoches. The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads, giving rise to vast cotton kingdoms along the river. Over time, planters developed large plantations and built fine homes in a growing town, a pattern repeated in New Orleans and other places.

Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts, concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, from Louisiana to as far north as the region called the Illinois Country , around Peoria, Illinois and present-day St. Louis, Missouri . See also: French colonization of the Americas

Initially Mobile, Alabama and Biloxi, Mississippi functioned as the capital of the colony; recognizing the importance of the Mississippi River to trade and military interests, France made New Orleans the seat of civilian and military authority in 1722. From then until the Louisiana Purchase made the region part of the United States on December 20, 1803, France and Spain would trade control of the region's colonial empire.

Most of the territory to the east of the Mississippi was lost to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the French and Indian War , except for the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain . The rest of Louisiana became a colony of Spain after the Seven Years' War by the Treaty of Paris of 1763.

During the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion; settling largely in the southwestern Louisiana, the Acadian refugees were welcomed by the Spanish, and descendants came to be called Cajuns .

In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte acquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso , an arrangement kept secret for some two years.

Then in 1803, Bonaparte sold the territory to the United States, which ( see Louisiana Purchase ) divided it into two territories: the Orleans Territory (which became the state of Louisiana in 1812) and the District of Louisiana (which consisted of all the land not included in Orleans Territory). The Florida Parishes were annexed from the short-lived and strategically important West Florida Republic by proclamation of President James Madison in 1810. The western boundary of Louisiana with Spanish Texas remained in dispute until the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819, with the Sabine Free State serving as a neutral buffer zone as well as a haven for criminals.

Louisiana was a slave state. It also had one of the largest free black populations in the United States.(see slavery ) In the American Civil War , Louisiana seceded from the Union on January 26 , 1861 . New Orleans was captured by Federal troops on April 25 , 1862 . Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the Federal government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana under federal control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress .

Hurricane Katrina

Further information: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Louisiana and Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans On August 29 , 2005 , Hurricane Katrina struck and devastated southeastern Louisiana, while damaged levees in New Orleans flooded the city. The city was essentially closed until October. Estimates are that more than two million people in the Gulf region were displaced by the hurricane , with more than a thousand storm fatalities in Louisiana. Public outcry criticized the government at the local, state, and federal levels, citing that response was neither fast nor adequate. The next month, southwestern Louisiana was struck by Hurricane Rita .

Demographics

Historical populations Census

Pop.

 

1810

76,556

 

1820

153,407

100%

1830

215,739

41%

1840

352,411

63%

1850

517,762

47%

1860

708,002

37%

1870

726,915

3%

1880

939,946

29%

1890

1,118,588

19%

1900

1,381,625

24%

1910

1,656,388

20%

1920

1,798,509

9%

1930

2,101,593

17%

1940

2,363,516

12%

1950

2,683,516

14%

1960

3,257,022

21%

1970

3,641,306

12%

1980

4,205,900

16%

1990

4,219,973

.3%

2000

4,468,976

6%

Louisiana Population Density Map As of July 2005 (pre-Katrina/Rita), Louisiana has an estimated population of 4,523,628, which is an increase of 16,943, or 0.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 54,670, or 1.2%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 129,889 people (that is 350,818 births minus 220,929 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 69,373 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 20,174 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 89,547 people.

As of 2003, the state's population included approximately 215,000 native French-speakers .

The racial makeup of the state is:

62.5% White

32.5% Black

1.2% Asian

0.6% Native American

1.1% Two or more races

 

2.4% of the population is of Hispanic origin, a category that includes members of any race. The five largest ancestries in the state are: African American and Franco-African (32.5%), French / French Canadian (16.2%), American (10.1%), German (7.1%), Irish (7%).

Official Census statistics do not distinguish among people of African ancestry. Consequently, no distinction is made between those in Lousiana of English-speaking African-American heritage and those who consider themselves Franco-African or Créole , though their respective cultural identities may be quite different.

Franco-Africans and African-American blacks, who made up a majority of the state's population during much of the 19th century , dominate much of the southeast, central, and northern parts of the state, particularly those parishes along the Mississippi River valley. But in recent years, the percentage of whites in those areas has grown, as large numbers of white senior citizens have begun to relocate there because of the friendly atmosphere, mild winters, and beautiful scenery.

Creoles (of West African, French and/or Spanish ancestry) and Cajuns of French Canadian ancestry are dominant in much of the southern part of the state. Whites of Southern U.S. background predominate in northern Louisiana.

Languages

As of 2000, 91.2% of Louisiana residents age 5 and older speak English at home and 4.8% speak French . Spanish is spoken by 2.5% of the population, Vietnamese is at 0.6% and German is at 0.2%.

Among the states, Louisiana has a unique culture, owing to its French colonial heritage. While the state has no declared "official language," its law recognizes both English and French . The French language is mainly concentrated in the southernmost portion of the state, along the Gulf of Mexico, and the use of French is closely associated with Cajun ancestry [1] .

Religion

Like the other Southern states, Louisiana is mostly Protestant; however, there is also a large native Catholic population in the state, particularly in the southern part of the state, which makes Louisiana unique among Southern states. The current religious affiliations of the people of Louisiana are shown in the table below:

Christian — 90% Protestant — 60% Baptist — 38%

Methodist — 4%

Pentecostal — 2%

Other Protestant – 16%

 

 

Roman Catholic — 30%

Other Christian — 1%

 

 

Other Religions — <1%

Non-Religious — 10%

 

The New Orleans area has a small but significant Jewish community.

Economy

The total gross state product in 2003 for Louisiana was US$140 billion. Its per capita personal income was US$26,312, forty-third in the United States.

The state's principal agricultural outputs include seafood (It is the biggest producer of crawfish in the world), cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice. Its industrial outputs include chemical products, petroleum and coal products, food processing, transportation equipment, paper products, and tourism.

Louisiana has 3 personal income tax brackets, ranging from 2 percent to 6 percent. The sales tax rate is 1 percent: a .97 percent Louisiana sales tax and a .03 percent Louisiana Tourism Promotion District sales tax. Political subdivisions also levy their own sales tax in addition to the state fees. The state also has a use tax , which includes 4 percent to be distributed by the Department of Revenue to local governments. Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level.

Transportation

see List of numbered highways in Louisiana

Law and government

Further information: List of Louisiana Governors In 1849 the state moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge . Donaldsonville , Opelousas , and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana state government.

The current Louisiana governor is Kathleen Babineaux Blanco ( Democrat ), and its two U.S. senators are Mary Landrieu ( Democrat ) and David Vitter ( Republican ). Louisiana has seven Members of Congress: five Republicans and two Democrats .

From its time as a possession of France, Louisiana retains a civil law legal system, based on the Louisiana Civil Code , which is similar to (and often confused with) the Napoleonic Code (like France, and unlike the rest of the United States, which uses a common law legal system derived from England). Also derived from French governance is the use of the term " parishes " in place of " counties " for the subdivisions of government.

Louisiana is the only state whose legal system is based on Roman, Spanish, and French civil law as opposed to English common law . Technically, it is known as "Civil Law," or the "Civilian System." It is often incorrectly referred to as the "Code Napoléon " or The Napoleonic Code. The state is officially governed by the Louisiana Civil Code of 1870, and has never officially governed by the Napoleonic Code. While the Napoleonic Code certainly influenced the state's code, the Napoleonic Code's formal enactment in 1804 happened after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. While the state's 1870 code has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. The civilian system is by and large the most widely practiced system of law in the world , as it is the system of law in much of continental Europe, Quebec , Japan , Latin America , and most former colonies of continental European countries.

Great differences still exist between Louisiana Civil Law and the Common Law found in her 49 sister states. While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of the Common Law in the United States, [2] it is important to note that the "Civilian" tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana private law. Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law are still mostly based on traditional Roman legal thinking . In contrast, criminal law is entirely based on the Anglo-American Common Law.

Louisiana is unique among U.S. states in its method for state, local, and congressional elections. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in an open primary on Election Day. If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote total compete in a runoff election approximately one month later. This runoff does not take into account party identification; therefore, it is not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. All other states use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting , to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials.

Louisiana has a statewide police force, the Louisiana State Police . It began in 1922 and its motto is "courtesy, loyalty, service." Its troopers have statewide jurisdiction with power to enforce all laws of the state, including city and parish ordinances. Each year, they patrol over 12 million miles (20 million km) of roadway and arrest about 10,000 impaired drivers. Troopers are also responsible for investigating the casino and gaming industry, all hazardous material incidents, anti-terrorism training and general criminal, narcotics and insurance fraud investigations.

Each parish in Louisiana has an elected sheriff, with the exception of Orleans Parish. It has two elected sheriffs - one criminal and one civil. The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parish. Orleans Parish is an another exception to this rule as the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans Police Department. The sheriff also controls and manages the parish jail and/or correctional facility. The sheriff is also the tax collector for each parish. Most parishes are governed by a Police Jury. Eighteen of the sixty-four parishes are governed under an alternative form of government under a Home Rule Charter. They oversee the parish budget and operate the parish maintenance services. This includes parish road maintenance and other rural services.

See also LA Sheriff's Association , LA Parish Government

Largest cities and towns

Further information: List of cities, towns, and villages in Louisiana Population > 500,000
(urbanized area) New Orleans metropolitan area

Baton Rouge metropolitan area

 

Population > 100,000
(urbanized area) Alexandria

Shreveport

Lafayette

Lake Charles

Houma

Monroe

 

Population > 10,000
(urbanized area) Bossier City

Hammond

New Iberia

Luling

Opelousas

Morgan City

West Monroe

Ruston

Thibodaux

Natchitoches

Plaquemine

Abbeville

Fort Polk (Leesville)

Bastrop

Crowley

Donaldsonville

Franklin

Bogalusa

Minden

Eunice

De Ridder

New Roads

Tallulah

Jennings

Sulphur

 

 

Largest cities with population of at least 20,000 City Population* Growth rate** Metro area 1

New Orleans

484,674

-2.5%

New Orleans

2

Baton Rouge

224,097

-1.6%

Baton Rouge

3

Shreveport

198,675

-0.7%

Shreveport

4

Metairie

146,136

1.1%

New Orleans

5

Lafayette

112,030

1.6%

Lafayette

6

Lake Charles

70,555

-1.8%

Lake Charles

7

Kenner

70,252

-0.4%

New Orleans

8

Bossier City

59,611

5.6%

Shreveport

9

Monroe

51,914

-2.8%

Monroe

10

Alexandria

45,693

-0.8%

Alexandria

11

Marrero

36,165

2.9%

New Orleans

12

New Iberia

32,499

-1.1%

Lafayette

13

Chalmette

32,069

1.01%

New Orleans

14

Houma

32,022

-1.1%

Houma-Thibodaux-Bayou Cane

 

15

Laplace

27,684

3.4%

New Orleans

16

Slidell

26,845

4.5%

New Orleans

17

Terrytown

25,430

0.2%

New Orleans

18

Opelusas

22,860

0.9%

Lafayette

19

Harvey

22,226

0.1%

New Orleans

20

Ruston

20,665

0.6%

*Estimated as of July 1, 2005 [2]
**Estimated annual growth rate 2000–2005
‡Defined as a micropolitan area

 

For more details on this topic, see List of parishes of Louisiana . Education

The Louisiana Department of Education is Louisiana's education agency.

Further information:

List of school districts in Louisiana

List of colleges and universities in Louisiana

 

Sports teams

As of 2005 Louisiana is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise. However, the effects of Hurricane Katrina have forced the National Basketball Association 's New Orleans Hornets to play their games in Oklahoma City for the 2005-06 season. The team and the league has said that they will return to New Orleans in 2007. The National Football League 's New Orleans Saints played three of their 2005 regular season games in San Antonio, with four games in Baton Rouge. The team will return to New Orleans for the 2006-2007 season.

Louisiana is also home to the Southern American Football League(SAFL), which has been in Louisiana for 5 years. In 2006, they have 10 teams, 8 of them from Louisiana.

Further information

List of Louisiana sports teams

 

Culture

Dishes typical of Louisiana Creole cuisine . Louisiana is home to many distinct cultures, especially notable are the non-Anglo Creole and the French-speaking Cajun.

The ancestors of Creoles came to Louisiana before the Louisiana Purchase (1803) from Western Europe France , Germany , Spain , and from Senegal (West Africa) and settled along the major waterways in the State. The blending of these disparate lifestyles is called "Creole" and continued as the dominant cultural, social, economic and political lifestyle of Louisiana well into the 20th Century when it would finally be overtaken by the Anglo-American mainstream.

The ancestors of the Cajuns are the Acadians , a French-speaking people of what are now New Brunswick and Nova Scotia , Canada . When the British won the French and Indian War , the British forcibly separated families and evicted them because of their long-stated political neutrality. Most captured Acadians were placed in internment camps in England and the New England colonies for 10 to 30 years. Many of those who escaped the British remained in French Canada. Once freed by England, many scattered, some to France, Canada, Mexico, the Falkland Islands, with the majority finding final refuge in south Louisiana centered in the region around Lafayette and the LaFourche Bayou country. Until the 1970s, Cajuns were often considered lower class citizens with the term "Cajun" being derogatory. But, once flush with oil & gas riches, Cajun culture, food, music and their infectious "joie de vivre" lifestyle quickly gained international acclaim.

There is also a distinct Spanish-descended group in Louisiana. The Isleños are direct descendants of Canary Islanders who migrated to Louisiana under the Spanish crown beginning in the mid-1770s. There were intended to help guard the eastern approaches to New Orleans from invasion by the British. They settled in what is modern-day St. Bernard Parish , in the river passes east of the city, along an old mouth of the Mississippi River which they named Terre aux Bœufs (literally "Land of Cattle" for the cattle living there). Many of their descendants remained insulated from the city, and continued to speak an archaic version of Spanish well into the 20th Century. They still maintain contacts with the Canary Islands, and have an annual " Caldo " festival named for a native dish.

References

Footnotes

^ Sturdevent, William C. (1967): Early Indian Tribes, Cultures, and Linguistic Stocks , Smithsonian Institution Map (Eastern United States).

^ U.S. Census Bureau: Population Estimates

 

Sources

Yiannopoulos, A.N., The Civil Codes of Louisiana (reprinted from Civil Law System: Louisiana and Comparative law, A Coursebook: Texts, Cases and Materials, 3d Edition; similar to version in preface to Louisiana Civil Code, ed. by Yiannopoulos)

Rodolfo Batiza, The Louisiana Civil Code of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance, 46 TUL. L. REV. 4 (1971); Rodolfo Batiza, Sources of the Civil Code of 1808, Facts and Speculation: A Rejoinder, 46 TUL. L. REV. 628 (1972); Robert A. Pascal, Sources of the Digest of 1808: A Reply to Professor Batiza, 46 TUL. L. REV. 603 (1972); Joseph M. Sweeney, Tournament of Scholars Over the Sources of the Civil Code of 1808,46 TUL. L. REV. 585 (1972).

Kinsella, N. Stephan, A Civil Law to Common Law Dictionary , 54 Louisiana Law Review 1265 (1994)

The standard history of the state, though only through the Civil War, is Charles Gayarré 's History of Louisiana (various editions, culminating in 1866, 4 vols., with a posthumous and further expanded edition in 1885).

A number of travel relations by 17th and 18th century French explorers, among whom the following at least should be cited: Jean-Bernard Bossu , François-Marie Perrin du Lac , Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, Dumont (as published by Fr. Mascrier), Fr. Louis Hennepin , Lahontan, Louis Narcisse Baudry des Lozières , Jean-Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe , and Laval. In this group, the explorer Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz may be considered the first historian of Louisiana with his Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763)

François Xavier Martin 's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827-1829, later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is the first scholarly treatment of the subject, along with François Barbé-Marbois ' Histoire de la Louisiane et de la cession de colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830).

Alcée Fortier 's A History of Louisiana (N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) is the most recent of the large-scale scholarly histories of the state.

The works of Albert Phelps and Grace King should also be mentioned among the more important, as well as the publications of the Louisiana Historical Society and several works on the history of New Orleans (q.v.) , among them those by Henry Rightor and John Kendall Smith .

 

See also

List of official symbols of Louisiana

List of people from Louisiana

List of festivals in Louisiana

Music of Louisiana

 

 

Louisiana





Official State of Louisiana website

U.S. Census Bureau

History of Louisiana

Photos of Louisiana - Terra Galleria

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Parish Maps Louisiana Louisiana parish maps cities towns full color

Louisiana Authors and Literature from the Southern Literary Review

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FULL CARE HORSE BOARDING:
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